Allows us to weight by review population size.
Let \(n_i\) be the number of reviews that item \(i\) gets, and let \(r_i\) be the naive average rating of item \(i\)
Let \(N\) be the total number of reviews across brands, i.e. \(N = \sum_{i} n_i \)
Let \(R\) be the average rating over all items across brands, i.e. \(R = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{i} n_i r_i \)...

Stories of Your Life and Others. Ted Chiang. 2010. ISBN: 9781931520898. Tower of Babylon Story focused on Hillalum, who lived during the construction of the Tower of Babel .
notes that the Hebrew school version was more elaborate than the Old Testament account, e.g. the tower is so tall that it takes a year to climb, and when a man falls to his death, no one mourns, but when a brick is dropped, the brick-layers weep because it will take a year to replace....

01. What is Mathematics About?;
Bernoulli Processes;
The Binomial Random Variable;
02. The Language and Grammar of Mathematics;
Conditional Probability;
The Bayes Formula;
Modular Arithmetic;
Bayesian Statistics [MIT 18.650];
Frequentist Approach vs. Bayesian Approach;
Why Mathematicians Can't Find the Hay in a Haystack [Quanta Magazine];
Probability and Stochastic Systems [ORF 309];
What is Ergodicity?;
The Princeton Companion to Mathematics [Gowers, Timothy];

Why Mathematicians Can’t Find the Hay in a Haystack. Kevin Hartnett. www.quantamagazine.org . Sep 17, 2018. Irrational numbers occupy most of the number line. If you were to pick a number on the number line at random, there is literally a 100% chance that it will be irrational (probabilities with inifinities are spooky). Yet, we almost never encounter irrational numbers for we can’t write them down....